Spring 1991, Vol.43 No. 1, pp.4-18
|First-century Christian communities and base communities in El Salvador and the United States share a common witness to the risen Jesus.|
William G. Thompson, S.J. specializes in the New Testament for adult spirituality and pastoral ministry. With a doctorate in scripture from the Biblical Institute in Rome, he serves as adjunct professor in Loyola’s Institute of Pastoral Studies, Chicago. He also offers workshops, prayer-study weekends, and retreats to adults. His recent book is Matthew’s Story: Good News for Uncertain Times (Paulist Press, 1989).
LUKE-Acts is communicated from first-century Christianity to us in the twentieth century. Christian missionaries tell the story in non-Christian cultures. But we also continually tell that story anew within Christianity, so that it can interact with the stories of our so-called Christian cultures. El Salvador is one specific place where Christians today are eloquently witnessing the risen Lord. Luke-Acts calls us in the United States to the same kind of witness.
The Gospel of Luke tells the story of Jesus and the Acts of the Apostles, the story of the Christian movement in its earliest days. Luke the artist-evangelist-storyteller completed his two- volume work around A.D. 85. He wrote it for predominantly Gentile-Christian communities who lived as minorities in the dominant cultures of Asia Minor, Macedonia, Greece, and Italy, that is, in Hellenistic cultures outside Palestine, the homeland of Christianity. Some communities could trace their roots back to Paul the great missionary to the Gentiles and his coworkers (Fitzmyer 35-62).
Luke-Acts is about women and men who witness the risen Lord, relating how they become witnesses by watching and listening to Jesus during his life on earth and how they give witness to others about Jesus after his ascension into heaven. Luke’s Jesus chooses men and women to watch him and listen to him as he announces God’s message of salvation within his native Jewish culture. After Pentecost, these same witnesses form the first Christian-Jewish community, preaching about their risen Lord with boldness and living his values among their fellow Jews in Jerusalem. Created for communities in A.D. 85, Luke-Acts tells how Jesus and his first companions sowed God’s message of salvation in their native Jewish soil of Palestine. Luke planted his story in the soil of communities who, though already Christian, lived within the non-Jewish, Hellenistic culture. Because his story interacted positively with stories in that culture, it gradually produced new life within the Christian communities.
El Salvador today is a troubled country. Seventy thousand Salvadorans have died in a wasteful war that for more than ten years has bled this tortured country. One fifth of the population has fled their homes, while the poor remain hungry, oppressed and denied their human dignity. Rutilio Grande, S.J. was assassinated in 1977. Archbishop Oscar Romero was struck down by an assassin’s bullet in 1980 while celebrating the eurcharist. Four United States women were kidnapped, assaulted and murdered by military forces in December of 1980. In November of 1989 six Jesuits and two women of their household family at the Central American University in San Salvador were brutally murdered and mutilated. In an article in America, James Brockman writes that in that same month church workers were arrested, foreign social workers were expelled from the country, refugee work was disrupted, churches and offices were sacked, and the Blessed Sacrament was desecrated (287-291).
The people in El Salvador resemble the witnesses in Luke-Acts, and both groups challenge us to ask how we might witness the risen Lord within our own culture. How might we become witnesses and give witness to others within our Christian families and religious communities within our Christian parishes and base communities, within our Christian institution al churches, and within our so-called Christian politico-economic society here in the United States?
On a Sabbath in the synagogue, Luke’s Jesus begins to tell the story of salvation in his native Nazareth. (Lk. 4:16-30). He announces his mission to his relatives and townspeople. He was anointed with God’s Spirit as he was praying at the Jordan (3:21-22). The Spirit then led Jesus into the wilderness of Judea to confront Satan and resist his temptation (4:1-13). Now, Jesus reveals his God-given mission, reading from the prophet Isaiah:
The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim release to the captives and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty those who are oppressed, to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord (Lk 4:18-19).
All eyes focus on Jesus, as he simply announces: “Today this scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing” (4:21). With the same Spirit that moved Israel’s prophets, God has anointed Jesus to be like Elijah and Elisha. God sent these prophets to save not only their fellow Jews, the chosen people of Israel, but also Zarephath in Sidon and Naaman the Syrian, non-Jews in the wider Gentile world (Lk 4:24-27). Jesus announces this message about God among his family and friends, those who know him as Joseph’s son. He invites them to enlarge their minds and hearts, so that they might perceive him not only as their savior but also as the savior of the world. But his words find no resonance with his townspeople. Because of their limited view of salvation they reject his message, become enraged with Jesus, take him out of the synagogue to the hill on which Nazareth is built, and attempt to hurl Jesus to his death. His own’ people cannot accept his God-given mission. Passing through the hostile, angry crowd, Jesus moves on to other towns and villages in Galilee. He begins a journey that will take him to Jerusalem and from Jerusalem to his Father in heaven.
After initial success in Capharnaum (4:31-43), Jesus moves about Galilee, sowing his message of salvation in the native soil of his own Jewish culture. It strikes a harmonious chord in the minds and hearts of those who choose to join Jesus on his journey. First, Jesus calls Simon Peter and with him James and John (5:1-ll). Next, he invites Levi, the tax-collector (5:27-28). Later, Jesus selects other apostles (6:12-16). Finally, we hear about the men and women who become his permanent entourage:
Soon afterward [Jesus] went on through cities and villages, preaching and bringing the good news of the kingdom of God. And the twelve were with him, and also some women who had been healed of evil spirits and infirmities: Mary, called Magdalene, from whom seven demons had gone out, and Joanna, the wife of Chuza, Herod’s steward, and Susanna, and many others, who provided for them out of their means. (8:1-3)
These men and women witness what Jesus says and does, letting his words and actions live in their minds and hearts. What do they see and hear? Jesus prays and Jesus acts. He prayed as he received God’s Spirit (3:21-22) and again before choosing the twelve apostles (6:12-16). Now, his companions watch him pray before asking them, “Who do you say that I am?” (9:18) and before being transfigured on the mountain (9:2836). At Capharnaum, Jesus cast out demons and healed many diseases (4:31-43). Now, his companions watch Jesus set at liberty other captives similarly oppressed. Like Elisha, Jesus heals a leper, restoring him to dignity among the villagers who had shunned all contact with him because of his disease (5:1216). Like Elijah, Jesus assists a widow at Naim, raising from death to life the son on whom she depended for her place in society (7:11-17). As his companions watch and listen, they recognize God’s power at work in Jesus’ prayers and actions and they reflect on how his example might teach them to balance prayer and action. Women and men today, whether in El Salvador or in the United States, cannot be witnesses in the same way as the men and women who companioned Jesus in Galilee. We have only Luke’s story about Jesus; but we do have the story. We can read it, talk about it, pray with it, reenact it, study it, hear it recited, celebrate it in the liturgy, tell it to each other, reflect on it together. We can choose to open our minds and hearts, our understanding and imagination, so that we might join the witnesses in the story to watch and listen to Jesus, to wait for him to encounter us as he encounters them. We believe that through Luke’s story the risen Lord wants to sow in our lives his message of salvation, as he planted it in the lives of his first companions.
In Brockman’s biography of Oscar Romero, the author says that Romero, his coworkers, and campesino communities in El Salvador let this story shape their minds and hearts, their imagination, and their understanding, so that they might serve the people, as active contemplatives, as people of prayer and action (12, 35, 77-78, 186-7, 235). Similarly, we in the United States can prayerfully decide what it means for us to preach good news to the poor, to set at liberty those who are oppressed, to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord, and we can act accordingly within our immediate neighborhoods, in our cities and states, and through our elected representatives in the federal government.
JOURNEYING TO JERUSALEM
After Jesus spreads his message throughout Galilee, he journeys with his Galilean companions through Samaria to Jericho, and from Jericho up the road to Jerusalem (Lk 9:5119:27). In Galilee, Jesus sent out twelve to preach, heal, and cast out demons (9:1-17). Now, Jesus sends his companions to non-Jewish villages in Samaria (9:51-53), and he sends seventy men and women, two by two, into every town and village through which he will pass (10:1-24). When they report that demons submitted to their power in his name, Jesus rejoices in the Holy Spirit and gives thanks to his Father in heaven (10:21-22). His companions are given a foretaste of how they will witness to the risen Lord after receiving God’s Spirit on Pentecost.
On the road to Jerusalem, these men and women often hear Jesus speak about the tension between riches and the reign of God. In Galilee, he announced beatitudes for the poor who mourn because they are hungry and persecuted, and he threatened woes for the rich who laugh because they are honored and satisfied (6:20-26). Now, Jesus elaborates what those beatitudes entail. He warns against greed: “Take heed, and beware of all covetousness; for a person’s life does not consist in the abundance of possessions” (12:15). Jesus urges his disciples to sell their possessions and give alms, so that their treasure and their heart may be in the heavens (12:33-34).
At a banquet, Jesus tells his Pharisee host:
When you give a dinner or a banquet, do not invite your friends or your brothers or your kinsmen or rich neighbors, lest they invite you in return, and you will be repaid. But when you give a feast, invite the poor, the maimed, the lame, the blind, and you will be blessed, because they cannot repay you. You will be repaid at the resurrection of the dead. (14:12-14)
Later, Jesus describes the radical choice that confronts his disciples: “No servant can serve two masters; for either he will hate the one and love the other, or he will be devoted to the one and despise the other. You cannot serve God and mammon” (16:13). He then tells a story that illustrates the beatitudes and woes about an unnamed rich man who feasts sumptuously every day while ignoring Lazarus the poor, hungry, homeless beggar at his gate (16:19-31). Lastly, Jesus invites the rich young man to sell what he has, give his money to the poor and follow him (18:18-23), teaches his companions about riches and the rewards of discipleship (18:24-30), and announces salvation to Zacchaeus the tax collector because he gives half of his income to the poor and restores what he owes to taxpayers (19:110). Jesus teaches about riches, and his Galilean companions let his words interact with their own attitudes toward material possessions. At times his words create a disturbing dissonance with their cherished values. Living with this tension prepares these men and women for the lifestyle they will choose when they form a community in Jerusalem after Pentecost. Jesus’ words about the inevitable tension between riches and the reign of God shape their minds and hearts, their understanding and imagination, as God moves them toward conversion.
The risen Lord speaks the same message today in El Salvador and in the United States. His words challenge us as they challenged his first companions. We may want to resist his message about riches by not allowing it to take root in our lives. Or we may let his words gradually transform how we think about and value material possessions. We may begin to notice how the rich in our countries who are honored and satisfied increasingly fail to see the poor, the hungry, and the homeless. Individually and in communities, we may face the radical choice between riches and the reign of God, as we pray for the grace of ongoing conversion.
Archbishop Romero said during an interview at the Conference of Latin American Bishops in Puebla:
To be converted is to turn to the true God, and in that sense I feel that my contact with the poor, with the needy, leads to a growing sense of need for God. In this sense, then, I too seek conversion, in order to be able to put trust in God and through God be able to provide a word of consolation, a response to the poor’s anguish, and if possible point out the way to those who can resolve these predicaments. (Brockman, Romero: A Life, 160)
Shortly before his death Romero told his people: I am glad, brothers and sisters, that our Church is persecuted precisely for its preferential option for the poor and for trying to become incarnate on behalf of the poor. And I want to say to all the people, to rulers, to the rich and powerful: if you do not become poor, if you do not concern yourselves for the poverty of our people as though they were your own family, you will not be able to save society. (Campbell-Johnson 1361)
Similarly, in Economic Justice for All, our United States Bishops have called us to be converted to the Christian vision of economic life and to commit ourselves to solidarity with the poor and oppressed (415-419). DEATH AND RESURRECTION
Arrived in Jerusalem, Jesus’ Galilean companions watch and listen, as he journeys through his death, resurrection and ascension to his Father in heaven (19:28-24:53). At the Passover meal, his men and women followers watch Jesus break bread, his body to be given up for them, and they pass a cup of wine to symbolize the new covenant in his blood (Quesnell 59-79). They listen to him predict that Judas will betray him and Peter will deny him. Jesus also tells them that true leaders are to serve the needs of others as he has done. His followers watch Jesus’ actions and listen to his words without yet understanding what they mean.
On the road to Jerusalem, Jesus taught his companions to pray the Our Father (11:1-4). In Gethsemane, he prays the same prayer: “Father, if you are willing, remove this cup from me; nevertheless not my will, but thine, be done” (22:42). On the cross, Jesus continues to pray: “Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do… Father, into thy hands I commit my spirit” (23:34,46). As he dies, Jesus also acts to set free the criminal on the cross next to him (23:42-43). Recognizing Jesus to be innocent, the thief asks: “Jesus, remember me when you come into your kingdom.” Jesus responds: “Today you will be with me in Paradise.” His companions from Galilee then watch Jesus die as he lived — a prophet and a martyr, a man of prayer and action, a son in harmony with his Father in heaven (23:49). As yet, however, these men and women do not understand how Jesus’ death reveals God’s plan to save the world.
After the sabbath, some Galilean women, finding Jesus’ tomb empty, hear two men in dazzling apparel announce: “Why do you seek the living among the dead? Remember how he told you, while he was still in Galilee, that the Son of man must be delivered into the hands of sinful men, and be crucified, and on the third day rise” (Lk 24:5-7). The women, recalling what Jesus predicted about his death and resurrection, begin to understand that the empty tomb and the announcement disclose that Jesus is risen from the dead. When they tell what they saw and heard, the men dismiss it as an idle tale.
The risen Lord meets two of his companions as they walk away from Jerusalem toward Emmaus (24:12-36). Not recognizing him, the men tell how the Jews in Jerusalem put to death Jesus of Nazareth whom they saw as a prophet mighty in deed and word before God and all the people. They had hoped that he was the Messiah who would free the Jewish people from Roman economic and political oppression. Jesus responds: “O foolish men, and slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken! Was it not necessary that the Christ should suffer these things and enter into his glory?” (Lk 24:25). Jesus begins to sow in their minds and hearts a new interpretation of his death, leading them gradually to understand its hidden mystery. What appears to be a failure paradoxically reveals God’s plan to save the world, as it was announced in their Scriptures. When Jesus breaks bread at table with the two men, they remember the Passover meal, recognize that this stranger is Jesus, and hasten back to Jerusalem to tell the other Galileans how their hearts burned as they witnessed the risen Lord.
Later that day Jesus appears to all his Galilean followers to show them that God had raised him from death to life. He assures them that he is the one whom they first met in Galilee, with whom they journeyed to Jerusalem, and whom they saw die on the cross. Jesus then explains these events: “Thus it is written, that the Christ should suffer and on the third day rise from the dead, and that repentance and forgiveness of sins should be preached in his name to all nations, beginning from Jerusalem. You are witnesses of these things. And behold, I send the promise of my Father upon you; but stay in the city, until you are clothed with power from on high” (24:46-49).
Mysteriously, God intends to save the world through the death and resurrection of Jesus, and his followers are to witness to others about God’s paradoxical plan. It is a mystery that invites his followers to open their minds and hearts so as to embrace a new understanding of salvation. For God’s plan is neither reasonable nor unreasonable; but it is beyond reason, that is, it is deeply mysterious. It may shock and startle their common sense. It may violate their traditional messianic expectations, how they are accustomed to think about God’s salvation. Jesus invites them into a hidden world of paradox and mystery.
After they watch Jesus ascend to his Father in heaven, the Galilean followers return to Jerusalem to wait and pray for God’s Spirit: “[The twelve] with one accord devoted themselves to prayer, together with the women and Mary the mother of Jesus, and with his brothers” (Acts 1:14). They tell stories about what they saw and heard during their time with Jesus — the events in Galilee, his words on the journey, and especially the last days in Jerusalem. As they talk, reflect, and pray together, Jesus’ words and actions continue to inform and influence their lives. With Peter leading them, the community chooses Matthias to replace Judas because he had witnessed all that Jesus said and did from his baptism at the Jordan to his ascension in Jerusalem (Acts 1:21-22).
People in El Salvador and in the United States continue to wrestle today with Jesus’ question: “Was it not necessary that the Christ should suffer these things and thus enter into his glory?” In the face of pain and death, that question can seem as absurd to us as it did to his first companions. It. violates our common sense. Couldn’t God have found a different way to save the world than through the death and- resurrection of Jesus? Can’t God find another way today than through the pain and death of innocent people who speak and ‘act on behalf of the poor? As we pray and act for economic justice in El Salvador and the United States, the risen Lord may lead us to understand the truth that God still intends to save the world through experiences that resemble his death and resurrection.
WITNESSING TO THE RISEN LORD IN JERUSALEM
On Pentecost, the God who anointed Jesus with the Spirit at the Jordan, sends the same Spirit to his Galilean companions (Acts 2:2-4). A sound comes from heaven like the rush of a mighty wind. Tongues as of fire rest on each of the women and men, as they are filled with the Holy Spirit. With God’s Spirit this community now witnesses to others about Jesus whom they know to be their risen Lord. With his words and actions in their minds and hearts, these Galilean companions now announce to the Jews in Jerusalem that God plans to save the world through the death and resurrection of Jesus their Messiah. That message continues to deepen in them, as they carry out Jesus’ command: “But you shall receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you, and you shall be my witness in Jerusalem and in all Judea and Samaria and to the end of the earth” (Acts 1:7-8).
God’s Spirit empowers these men and women to form the first small community of prayer and action (Acts 2:42-47). Having heard Jesus teach, they now preach throughout Jerusalem. Having watched Jesus heal and cast out demons, they now have a holy fear as they watch the apostles set free those held captive by sickness. Having heard Jesus warn about riches, they now sell their possessions and distribute the income to whomever is in need. Having watched Jesus break bread at the Passover meal, they now praise God each day at the temple and break bread together in their homes. As they imitate Jesus by praying and acting together, these Galilean women and men become more united in mind and heart and find favor among their fellow Jews in Jerusalem (Acts 2:41-47). Witnessing to others about their risen Lord, they experience his vision and his values sinking deeper roots in the soil of their own lives. Many are at first drawn to join this community of witnesses.
At Nazareth, Jesus announced his God-given mission; at Pentecost, Peter announces to the Jews from throughout the world that God plans to save the world through the death and resurrection of Jesus who is the promised Messiah (Acts 2:12-40). When Peter later heals a lame man, the Jews who condemned Jesus to death arrest Peter and John and bring them to trial. Peter again speaks out about his risen Lord: “And there is salvation in no one else, for there is no other name under heaven given among men by which we must be saved” (Acts 4:12). When released, Peter and John tell the community all that happened. With glad hearts, they pray: “And now, Lord, look upon their threats, and grant to your servants to speak your word with all boldness, while you stretch out your hand to heal, and signs and wonders are performed through the name of your holy servant Jesus” (Acts 4:27-31). As they pray, God again fills them with the Holy Spirit, a second Pentecost that enables this prophetic community to continue witnessing to the risen Lord through prayer and action.
On the journey to Jerusalem, his companions heard Jesus warn about riches. Now these Galileans choose a style of life that translates his words into concrete action:
And with great power the apostles gave their witness to the resurrection of the Lord Jesus, and great grace was upon them all. There was not a needy person among them, for as many as were possessors of lands or houses sold them, and brought the proceeds of what was sold and laid it at the apostles’ feet; and distribution was made to each as any had need. (Acts 4:33-35)
With God’s Spirit, the community acts according to the values of their risen Lord, letting his teaching transform their lives. Communities of men and women in El Salvador and in the United States today draw inspiration from this community in Jerusalem, the first communidad de base. God’s Spirit descended upon Jesus at the Jordan; that same Spirit descends on his Galilean companions at Pentecost. Do we believe that God also sends the same Spirit, so that we might witness to the risen Lord? At Nazareth, Jesus announced his mission; Peter announces God’s plan of salvation in Jerusalem. How might we proclaim that message with the same prophetic boldness in our homes and parishes, in our workplace and neighborhoods, in our cities and nations? Jesus prayed and acted; his companions became a community of prayer and action. How might God’s Spirit enable us to live as communities who pray together and act for justice in our world?
Jesus spoke about the tension between riches and the reign of God; his Galilean followers chose to share their material possessions out of concern for the poor. May not God be calling us to speak for those who have no one to speak for them, to defend the defenseless who are the poor in our societies, to view reality from the side of the powerless, and to assess our lifestyles, policies, and social institutions in terms of their impact on the poor? Our communities can and do act today, so that the oppressed might experience the power of God’s love with dignity and freedom, so that they can know God’s message of salvation. God can and does enable us to empty ourselves, individually and as communities, so that we might experience the power of God’s Spirit in the midst of our own poverty and powerlessness.
Oscar Romero communicated with the people of El Salvador through homilies broadcast throughout the country. His words inspired distant, isolated communities to continue worshipping together and studying the gospels. In response he received letters from persecuted communities throughout El Salvador. One community wrote: “Without any fear we will keep on preaching in the light of the gospel the good news to the poor, filled with an unshakeable faith and a hope that renews our strength to follow without losing heart in the way of Christ.” (Brockman, 78)
At Passover in Jerusalem, Jesus’ companions, the men and women who followed him from Galilee, watched him pass through suffering and death to the glory of his resurrection and ascension into heaven. Jesus explained that these events reveal God’s plan to save the world, and Peter announced that plan throughout Jerusalem. Now, the Jewish Council persecute his followers with such fervor that the deacon Stephen imitates his risen Lord by dying as a martyr (Acts 6:8-8:1). Stephen announces to Greek-speaking Jews that Jesus was like Abraham and Joseph, even as great as Moses. Indicting the Council for Jesus’ death, Stephen witnesses to his resurrection: “Behold, I see the heavens opened, and the Son of man standing at the right hand of God” (Acts 7:56).
Enraged, the Jews take Stephen outside Jerusalem to stone him. As he dies, Stephen prays, as Jesus prayed: “Lord Jesus, receive my spirit …. Lord, do not hold this sin against them” (Acts 7:59-60). Among the onlookers was Saul the Pharisee who drags Jesus’ followers from their homes to prison, both the men and the women (Acts 8:1-3). Later, Saul will experience the risen Lord on the road to Damascus and sow God’s message of salvation among Jews and Gentiles in Asia Minor, Macedonia, Greece, and Rome (Acts 9-28).
Intense persecution forces the community in Jerusalem to disperse, so that they can witness the risen Lord in all Judea and Samaria and to the end of the earth (Acts 1:8). With God’s Spirit, these men and women from Galilee have given their testimony in Jerusalem. At first, their words and actions resonated with their fellow Jews; but they failed to strike a sympathetic chord within the Jewish authorities. Watching Jesus die on the cross, knowing him to be risen, giving witness to his death and resurrection, these men and women find peace, even joy, in their being forced to leave Jerusalem. Their risen Lord had explained God’s mysterious plan to save the world; now God’s Spirit enables them to recognize it being carried out in their own experience.
WITNESSING JESUS TODAY
Brockman quotes Romero’s now famous words:
I must tell you, as a Christian, I do not believe in death without resurrection. If I am killed, I shall arise in the Salvadoran people …. If God accepts the sacrifice of my life, let my blood be a seed of freedom and the sign that hope will soon be reality. Let my death, if it is accepted by God, be for my people’s liberation and as a witness of hope in the future. (78)
How are we in the United States to participate in that resurrection? Might we not demand without ceasing that our elected members of Congress vote to end all U.S. economic aid until human rights have been restored to the Salvadoran people? Others may disagree with our actions on behalf of El Salvador. But like the first Christian men and women, we may experience deep peace and joy from doing what we can to witness the risen Lord within our Christian country. At the mass for the two women and the Jesuits slain in El Salvador Joseph A. O’Hare, S.J. said:
The final word of this liturgy cannot be one of anger or denunciation. It must be one of hope. For this too, in the end, is the ground of our solidarity with the people of El Salvador. If Jesuits are men crucified to the world and to whom the world is crucified, it is only because we believe that out of the crucifixion of our Saviour, El Salvador, came life and comes life …. When Christians celebrate the eucharist, they take the bread, break it and remember him who took his life, broke it and gave it that others might live. With deep hope in the resurrection of the Lord, we pray that the final word in the drama of El Salvador be one of life and hope rather than death and despair. We pray that the irony of that tiny, tortured country’s name, El Salvador, will be redeemed by the resurrection of its people. (America 446)
Brockman, James R. Romero: A Life (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1989) pp. 12, 35, 77-78, 186-187, 235.
_____.”Archbishop Romero, the United States and El Salvador,” America 162:11.(March 24, 1990) pp. 287-291.
Campbell-Johnson, Michael. “‘Be a Patriot: Kill a Priest.'” The Tablet (November 25, 1989): 1361.
Economic Justice for All: Catholic Social Teaching and the U.S. Economy in Origins 16:24 (November 27, 1986): 415-419.
Fitzmyer, The Gospel According to Luke I-IX (Garden City, NY: Douleday, 1981), pp. 35-62.
O’Hare, Joseph. “In Solidarity with the Slain Jesuits of El Salvador,” America 161:19 (December 16, 1989): 446.
Quesnell, Q. “The Women at Luke’s Supper.” In Political Issues in Luke-Acts, by R.J. Cassidy and P. Scharper, 59-79. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1983.