THE THEOLOGY OF THOMAS AQUINAS: BIBLIOGRAPHY
I. The Writings of Thomas Aquinas.
The complete writings of Aquinas (including some texts incorrectly attributed to him) can be found in a Piana edition (1570), a Parma edition (1852 – 1873) (reprinted in New York in 1948), and a Paris edition (1871 – 1880). In recent decades many works, in theology and philosophy, have been published by Marietti in Turin. The books by J. A. Weisheipl and J. P. Torrell (listed below) give a detailed study of the conditions of authorship of each work as well as editions and translations.
The Leonine Commission of the Vatican and the Dominican Order are working slowly and painstakingly to produce a critical text of all the writings. This version establishes through families of manuscripts a text close to Aquinas’ original. The Summa contra gentiles and the ST were published in the last decade of the nineteenth century (with the commentaries of Silvester Ferrariensis and Thomas de Vio, Cardinal Cajetan, respectively). In the 1960s the work of the Commission was taken up again, and further texts of Aquinas have been published.
Early in the twentieth century the English Dominicans produced a translation of the ST (New York, 1912 – 1925), and some decades later American Dominicans translated the ST (adding explanatory essays) (St. Louis, 1947 – 48), 3 vols. In the 1960s the English, Irish and American Dominicans presented a new translation of the ST in 60 volumes; the English translation faces the Latin text, and the volumes contains valuable notes and appendices (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964); Doubleday Image Books began to publish this translation in paperback but ceased after a very few volumes. Summa theologiae. A Concise Translation is an abbreviated presentation in English of the entire ST , assembled by T. McDermott (Westminster, 1989). There is also a collection of philosophical passages from the ST : P. J. Kreeft,A Summa of the Summa . The Essential Philosophical Passages of St. Thomas Aquinas’ Summa Theologica (San Francisco, 1990). Walter Farrell engagingly summarized and explained the entire ST in his A Companion to the Summa (New York, 1945), 4 vols.; a summary is found in W. Farrell and Martin J. Healy, My Way of Life. Pocket Edition of St. Thomas. The Summa Simplified for Everyone (Brooklyn, 1952). Paul J. Glenn’s A Tour of the Summa (St Louis, 1978) is a sparse summary of the work’s main points. A number of other writings by Aquinas have been translated into English: the commentaries on Aristotle’s On Interpretation, Posterior Analytics, On the Soul, Metaphysics, Physics, Nichomachaean Ethics; the Compendium of Theology (The Light of Faith) and the Summa contra gentiles; the disputations On Truth and On Power; On Spiritual Creatures , On Charity ; the Biblical commentaries on Job , John , Philippians , Ephesians , Galatians and 1 Thessalonians , and the Catena Aurea .
There are also collections of texts from Aquinas: J. Dawson, ed., Aquinas: Selected Political Writings (Oxford, 1948); T. Gilby, ed., Philosophical Texts (London, 1951; Durham, 1982), and Theological Texts (London, 1955; Durham, 1982); Mary Clark, An Aquinas Reader (New York, 1972); Vernon J. Bourke, The Pocket Aquinas (New York, 1973). In Italian there is a recent dictionary of Thomist terms: B. Mondin, Dizionario Enciclopedico del Pensiero di San Tommaso d’Aquino (Bologne, 1991).
Valuable sources for studying Aquinas are the editions and notes of the ST in other languages; these editions resemble the McGraw-Hill edition in English: Die deutsche Thomas-Ausgabe (Salzburg, 1933; Cologne, 1955 — ); Somme theologique [Edition des jeunes] (Paris, 1925 – 1947) and more recently, Somme theologique (Paris, 1984 – ); Summa theologiae (Madrid, 1961 – 1965).
There are two booklets which depict the ST in static charts: J. J. Berthier, Tabulae synopticae totius Summae theologicae S. Thomae Aquinatis (Freiburg, 1893; Washington, 1946) and G. Q. Friel, St. Thomas Aquinas: An Outline of the Summa theologicae (Providence, 1950). There are also synopses in a few lines of every article from every question in the entire work: P. Alagona, Theologicae Summae Compendium (Turin, 1900), and Synopsis totius Summae theologiae S. Thomas (Naples, 1950).
II. Indices of Thomas Aquinas’ Writings.
Besides M. Stockhammer, Thomas Aquinas Dictionary (New York, 1965) there is an index to the ST by Roy Defarrari, A Complete Index of the Summa theologica of St. Thomas Aquinas (Baltimore, 1956; Boston, 1986). There is the valuable index produced by IBM: Index Thomisticus , R. Busa, ed. (Stuttgart, 1974); these many volumes developed by computer technology offer from all of Aquinas’ works an index of every word; the pages gives the Latin word in each of its location with its context of six or seven words. This index is also available on CD-ROM as Thomae Aquinatis Opera Omnia cum hypertextibus in CD-ROM , R. Busa, ed. (Milan: Editoria Ellettronica Editel, 1992). Another computerized index of Aquinas is available from Past Masters (Clayton, GA: InteLex Corporation, 1993). There are indices of articles on Aquinas covering secondary literature over some decades at the Pontifical University of St. Thomas Aquinas (Angelicum) in Rome and at the Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies (Toronto).
Thomistic studies are fortunate in having not only recent, computerized indices but a long-term and thorough bibliographical survey. For much of this century the Bulletin Thomiste (1924 – 1965) — which in 1965 became Rassegna della letteratura tomistica (Rome) — has attempted to list and review the large literature of books and articles on Thomas Aquinas in languages ranging from Portugese to Polish. Vernon Bourke compiled a Thomist Bibliography, 1920 – 1940 (St. Louis, 1945), and a Thomistic Bibliography, 1940 – 1978 (Westport, 1980). There is also a Bibliographie thomiste (Paris, 1960) begun by P. Mandonnet and expanded by M. D. Chenu. A recent bibliography is Richard Ingardia, Thomas Aquinas. International Bibliography, 1977 – 1990 (Bowling Green, 1993). There are also bibliographies on special areas like A. Pedrini, Bibliografia Tomistica sulla Pneumatologia (Vatican City, 1994)
III. Studies on Thomas Aquinas.
Two internationally recognized studies on Aquinas’ life, career, and the historical context and genre of his writings are J. A. Weisheipl, Friar Thomas d`Aquino: His Life, Thought and Work (New York, 1974) of which there is a summary: “Thomas Aquinas” New Catholic Encyclopedia , 14, pp. 102ff. and recently, J. – P. Torrell, Initiation a saint Thomas d’Aquin. Sa personne et son oeuvre (Paris, 1993) (for a summary see Torrell, “Thomas d’Aquin,” in Dictionnaire de Spiritualite , 15 [Paris, 1990], 718 – 773).
M. D. Chenu’s Towards Understanding St. Thomas (Chicago, 1964) remains a particularly helpful presentation of the context of his activity as a theologian. Treating Aquinas’ sources is C. Pera, Le Fonti del pensiero di S. Tommaso d’Aquino nella Somma teologica (Turin, 1979). The writings of Chenu, Congar and other French scholars remain valuable as is E. Gilson’s The Christian Philosophy of St. Thomas Aquinas (New York, 1956). A penetrating study of the ST is G. Lafont, Structures et methode dans la somme theologique de S. Thomas d’Aquin (Paris, 1961) to which can be added the literature cited in T. F. O’Meara, “Grace as a Theological Sturcture in the Summa theologiae of Thomas Aquinas,” Recherches de theologie ancienne et medievale 55 (1988), 130ff.; Karl Rahner, “The Importance of Thomas Aquinas,” Faith in a Wintry Season (New York, 1990), pp. 41ff. Looking at Aquinas’ life and theology from the point of view of the spiritual life is S. Tugwell, Albert and Thomas. Selected Writings (New York, 1988); a fine summary is W. Principe, “Aquinas, St. Thomas,” in Richard McBrien, ed., The Harper Collins Encyclopedia of Catholicism (San Francisco, 1995), pp. 83 – 89. There is a collection of passages from Aquinas juxtaposed with observations on American spirituality in M. Fox, Sheer Joy. Conversations with Thomas Aquinas on Creation Spirituality (San Francisco, 1992); and a collection of texts on the spiritual life: B. M. Ashley, Thomas Aquinas. The Gifts of the Spirit. Selected Writings (Hyde Park, 1995). Among European scholars Otto Pesch must be noted: building upon his lengthy study on Aquinas and Luther are The God Question in Thomas Aquinas and Martin Luther (Philadelphia, 1972); Thomas von Aquin. Grenze und Grosse mitterlatlerlicher Theologie (Mainz, 1989); “Thomas von Aquin,” Lexikon fur Theologie und Kirche , 10, 119ff., 157ff. Other recent studies are A. Patfoort, Saint Thomas d’Aquin. Les clefs d’une theologie (Paris, 1983) and Brian Davies, The Thought of Thomas Aquinas (Oxford, 1992). Articles on Aquinas, Thomism, and major Thomists can be found in encyclopedias like The New Catholic Encyclopedia , Lexikon fur Theologie und Kirche , and The Harper Collins Encyclopedia of Catholicism .
In this century a number of biographies and studies appeared, each with its own perspective and limits: J. Maritain, Angelic Doctor. Life and Thought of St. Thomas Aquinas (New York, 1931); A. G. Sertillanges, St. Thomas Aquinas and His Work (London, 1932); G. K. Chesterton, St. Thomas Aquinas (New York, 1935); Gerald Vann, St. Thomas Aquinas (New York, 1947); Martin D’Arcy, Thomas Aquinas (Westminster, 1954); F. C. Coppleston, Aquinas (Baltimore, 1955). Joseph Pieper offered The Silence of St. Thomas (New York, 1957) and Guide to Thomas Aquinas (New York, 1962). The distinguished German medievalist from the beginning of the century, Martin Grabmann, wrote four books on Aquinas: The Interior Life of St. Thomas Aquinas (Milwaukee, 1951); Thomas Aquinas. His Personality and Thought  (New York, 1963); Introduction to the Theological Summa of St. Thomas (St. Louis, 1930); Die Kulturphilosophie des hl. Thomas von Aquin (Augsburg, 1925).
During the neo-scholastic revival a number of periodicals began in European countries, some of which are still active: Divus Thomas (Piacenza) (1880 – ); Revue Thomiste (1893 – ) edited by the French Dominicans; Ciencia Tomista edited by the Spanish Dominicans (1910 – ); Scholastik (1926 – 1965) (Freiburg im Breisgau); Revue neoscholastique de philosophie (1894 – ) from Louvain; Rivista Italiana di filosofia neoscolastica (1909 -) (Milan). To these could be added: Angelicum (Rome), The Thomist (Washington), The Modern Schoolman (St. Louis), New Scholasticism (begun in 1927, it becomes in 1989 American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly ), Recherches de theologie ancienne et medievale (Mont Cesar), Revue des sciences philosophique et theologique (Paris) as well as general journals like Medieval Studies (Toronto).
IV. Surveys of the History of Thomism.
For nineteenth century surveys of the history of Thomism there are M. Schneid, “Die neuere thomistische Literatur,” Literarischer Handweiser 20 (1881) in five parts and G. Feldnor, “Die Neu-Thomisten,” Jahrbuch fur Philosophie und spekulative Theologie , 8, 9, (1894, 1895), five parts. In this century, see G. La Piana, “Recent Tendencies in Roman Catholic Theology,” Harvard Theological Review 15 (1922), 122ff.; M. Grabmann, Die Geschichte der katholischen Theologie seit dem Ausgang der Vaterzeit (Freiburg, 1933), pp. 218ff.; Martin Grabmann, “History of the Theological Summa . Its Commentators,” Introduction to the Theological Summa of St. Thomas (St. Louis, 1930), pp. 43ff. P. Dezza, I neotomisti italiani del secolo XIX ( Milan, 1942/44) 2 vols.; J. L. Perrier, The Revival of Scholastic Philosophy (New York, 1948); G. F. Rossi, Le origini del neotomismo (Piacenza, 1957); J. P. Golinas, La restauration du Thomisme sous Leon XIII et la philosophie nouvelle (Washington, 1959); E. Hocedez, Histoire de la theologie au XIXe siecle (Bruxelles, 1947 – 1952), 3 vols.; R. Aubert, “Aspects divers du neo-thomisme sous le pontificat de Leon XIII,” Aspetti della cultura cattolica nell’ eta die Leone XIII (Rome, 1961), 133-227; A. Walz, “Sguardo sul movimento tomista nel secolo XIX final all’enciclica Aet. Patris,” Aquinas 8 (1965), 315ff.
More recent are F. J. Roesch, Early Thomistic School (Dubuque, 1964), Helen James John, The Thomist Spectrum (New York, 1966), Thomas J. A. Hartley, Thomistic Revival and the Modernist Era (Toronto, 1971), L.A. Kennedy, A Catalogue of Thomists, 1270 -1900 (Houston, 1987). General overviews are provided by F. van Steenberghen, “Die neu-scholastische Philosophie,” in H. Vorgrimler, Bilanz der Theologie (Freiburg, 1969) 1, pp. 352ff.; J. Weisheipl, “Thomism,” New Catholic Encyclopedia 14 (New York, 1967), pp. 126 – 135; “Scholasticism,” New Catholic Encyclopedia 12 (New York, 1967), pp. 1167ff.; O. Pesch, “Thomismus,” Lexikon fur Theologie und Kirche 10 (Freiburg, 1965), 160; G. Sohngen, “Neuscholastik,” Lexikon fur Theologie und Kirche 7 (Freiburg, 1962), 923; O. Kohler, “Neo-Thomism, Scholasticism, and Modern Philosophies,” in H. Jedin, ed., Handbook of Church History , 6:2 (New York, 1974), pp. 316ff.; Paulus Engelhardt, “Thomism,” Sacramentum Mundi 6 (New York, 1970), pp. 249; Marcel Regnier, “Le Thomisme depuis 1870,” Histoire de la Philosophie 3, Encyclopedie de la pleiade (Gallimard, 1974), pp. 483ff; Norman F. Cantor, “After the Fall,” Inventing the Middle Ages. The Lives, Works, and Ideas of the Great Medievalists of the Twentieth Century (New York, 1991), pp. 287ff.; Wayne Hankey, “Making Theology Practical: Thomas Aquinas and the Nineteenth Century Religious Revival,” Dionysius 9 (1985), 85ff.; G. McCool, Nineteenth Century Scholasticism (revision of Catholic Theology in the Nineteenth Century ) (New York, 1989); “Neo-Thomism and the Tradition of St. Thomas,” Thought 62 (1987), 131ff.; “The Tradition of Saint Thomas in North America: at 50 Years,” The Modern Schoolman 65 (1988), 185ff.; From Unity to Pluralism. The Internal Evolution of Thomism (New York, 1989); The Neo-Thomists (Milwaukee, 1994); T. O’Meara, “The Two Directions of German Catholic Theology (1864 – 1914),” Church and Culture. German Catholic Theology, 1860 – 1914 (Notre Dame, 1991), pp. 25ff.; “Thomas Aquinas and German Intellectuals,” Gregorianum 68 (1987), 719ff.; D. Hudson, D. Moran, eds., The Future of Thomism (Notre Dame, 1992); and individual essays in E. Coreth, ed., Christliche Philosophie im katholischen Denken des 19. und 20. Jahrhunderts (Graz, 1988 – 1990), 3 vols. A volume of the ninth International Thomistic Congress treats this area: Studi Tomistici 6, Storia del Tomismo (fonti e riflessi) (Vatican City, 1994). The histories of the Dominican Order by W. Hinnebusch and B. M. Ashley discuss Thomism in various periods.